Burger King, Corporate Tax Inversions, And Political Theater.

Posted September 1, 2014 by austrianaddict
Categories: Government and Politics

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

 

Just an 80's era Burger King

The recent bashing of Burger King about their merger with Tim Hortons is nothing more than political theater being staged for the upcoming November elections. The political strategy of: divide us into as many groups as possible, pit us against each other using propaganda, and set up the false narrative that Government is the only solution to the made up problem is in full swing. In this case it’s the usual tried and true tactic of the haves vs. the have-nots.

POLITICAL PROPAGANDA / HOME OF THE WHOPPER

A corporate tax inversions is simply a corporation merging with an overseas company from a country that has a lower tax rate. The President has been propagandizing inversions lately for political reasons. If you don’t believe me watch this short video ( if you can get through the first minute). The words used, the tone of his voice, and the misinformation in this video would make Joseph Goebbels envious.

Tactics like this aren’t new. In May of 2013 Apple was brought in front of a Homeland Security and Government Affairs Committee hearing to be lambasted about their tax practices. These hearings are always political theater. But in this case something different happened. Senator Rand Paul took the unpopular stance of defending Apple.

Which video do you believe is factually true of just a piece of propaganda. We have to be able to sift through the propaganda and rhetoric of both sides in order to get to the truth.

TAX INVERSION MATHMATICS

The Federal Government will collect $20 billion less in tax revenue over a decade if tax inversions aren’t halted (read here). That’s only $2 billion a year out of a $3.7 trillion yearly Federal budget, or .001 percent of the budget. If you add the fact that the Fed is still printing $25 billion a month, you see the insignificant amount of money involved. Politicians will propagandize inversions by saying, “this will ‘cost tax payers’ blah blah blah”, or something about corporations, “trying to avoid paying their fair share”. This is purely political posturing through propaganda.

PERVERSE BED FELLOWS

Here is an article titled, Buffett Burger King Funds Flip Obama’s Inversion Calculus. It is interesting to see all the corners these crony capitalists and politicians get paint into because of their incestuous relationship with each other. Here are some excerpts.

“Billionaire Warren Buffett was an ally of President Barack Obama during the 2008 presidential campaign and the force behind Obama’s “Buffett Rule,” designed to increase tax bills for the wealthiest Americans. Now, the second-richest man in the U.S. has dented Obama’s effort to stamp out corporate inversions.”

“The danger for Democrats is that Buffett’s investment in the burger-fries-and-a-Coke company’s inversion might flip that calculation and make it politically easier for other corporations to follow suit without suffering repudiation from the public or the White House.”

“That’s because Buffett in the past has served as a sort of unofficial adviser to Obama on business and financial matters, someone whose stamp of approval has offered political cover when the president has been accused of being anti-business or of unfairly targeting the wealthy….If Obama were to question the Burger King deal publicly now, it would mean putting himself at odds with Buffett.”

“I proposed closing this unpatriotic tax loophole for good,” Obama said in his weekly address on July 26. “Rather than double-down on the top-down economics that let a fortunate few play by their own rules, let’s embrace an economic patriotism..”

“…Treasury Secretary Jacob J. Lew called on Congress to pass a law requiring that foreign shareholders account for 50 percent of the ownership of a new merger between a U.S. company and a foreign one … The administration wants that change made retroactive to May…. legislation taking effect after the president signs it into law — could have the perverse effect of encouraging corporations to act more quickly, negotiate new deals and rush to close those transactions before the bill is enacted,” Lew wrote. “It would be a mistake for Congress to pass anti-inversion legislation that creates a race against the clock and encourages more, not fewer, inversions.”

I want to disinfect myself after reading that.

GEORGE McGOVERN: FREE MARKET CONVERT?

Former Senator and 1972 Democratic Presidential nominee George McGovern talked about his experience dealing with Government regulations and mandates after he retired from politics and became a business owner, in this article titled What I Know Now: Nibbled To Death. Here are a few excerpts from the article.

“The second lesson I learned by owning the Stratford Inn is that legislators and government regulators must more carefully consider the economic and management burdens we have been imposing on U.S. business.”

“….if I were back in the U.S. Senate or in the White House, I would ask a lot of questions before I voted for any more burdens on the thousands of struggling businesses across the nation….. I would ask whether specific legislation exacts a managerial price exceeding any overall benefit it might produce. What are the real economic and social gains of the legislation when compared with the costs and competitive handicaps it imposes on businesspeople?”

“…While running my struggling hotel, I never once missed a payroll. What happens to the people who counted on that, and to their families and community, when an owner goes under? Those questions worry me, and they ought to worry all of us who love this country as a land of promise and opportunity.”

I think this article was written around 1993. If Senator McGovern thought regulations and mandates were bad then, what would he think about them if he were alive today. Senator McGovern was a big Government leftist, but he realized at some point regulations and mandates destroy economic activity. [Or did he just want regulations to be at a level in which his business could survive? Would he have written this this article if regulations weren’t at a level that affected his business? His business just happened to be the submarginal business, what if it had been the supramarginal business?}.

CONCLUSION

“The economy” is what results when each individual is free to make decisions on what to produce, consume, save, or exchange according to what he values at any particular time. Outside of protecting  property rights, contracts, and torts: government interventions hamper the decision-making by individuals, by definition hurting the economy.

Government intervention substitutes the decisions of individual politicians and bureaucrats, for the decisions of free individuals in the market, creating a lower overall standard of living, and individuals who are less satisfied.

Politicians are always performing in the political theater, because they realize that the political process is the only way they can get in positions of power to enforce their superior wisdom on the masses. We have to realize this, and be able to weed out the propaganda from the facts if we are going to be able to turn the big Government ship around.

Must Reads For The Week 8/30/14

Posted August 30, 2014 by austrianaddict
Categories: Must Reads For The Week

Tags: , , , , , , , ,
The pen is mightier than the sword...

 The pen is mightier than the sword… (Photo credit: mbshane)

Tattoo Removal Business Booming As Inked Up Teens Grow Up, by Sophia Harris, at cbc.ca.com. This shows value is subjective. Not only do different people value the same thing differently at different times, the same person values the same thing differently at different times. The tattoo hasn’t changed it is the same as when the person got it, The only thing that has changed is the value the person places on the tattoo at a different time. I always thought this could be a viable business one day. For some people tattoos are monuments to the ignorance of  their youth.

Watch 11 Member SWAT Team Raid The House Of A 68-Year Old Grandmother Using Stun Grenades, by Mark J. Perry, at aei-ideas.org. This video shows why the respect for law enforcement is tanking. When a situation like this happens all cops are painted with this broad brush. When citizens resist orders given by cops citizens are painted with this broad brush by cops. The lack of trust on both sides escalates and we reach a point where cooler heads will never prevail, because neither side can back down. What is the answer? Our politicians and bureaucrats have to be held accountable by the law, or citizens won’t comply.

Students Irate Over Food Bully Michelle Obama, by Chris Rossini, at economicpolicyjournal.com. Chris Rossini hits the nail on the head with this comment, “After eating their rations, the kids are forced to sit through hours of why Leviathan is so great and important“.  Also this,  Junk Food Fights: Students Tee Off On Michelle Obama, at vocativ.com. Kids are using social media to show their disdain for being told what to eat.

The War On Ridesharing, at economicpolicyjournal.com. The market will eventually win against the status quo monopoly.

The Guy Who Tutors Kids On Skype For $1000 An Hour, by Caroline Moss, at economicpolicyjournal.com. This is the future of education. The most talented teacher in a particular field can teach every student in America by using the internet. In the past the best teacher in a particular field could only teach the students who were taking his classes every day.

What Is Obama Doing With All Those Multi-Billions In Bank Fine Money? at economicpolicyjournal.com. Here is the two most important points in the article, 1) “Now, I strongly believe that individuals who broke the law and deliberately wrote bad mortgage securities should be punished….corporations are different from individuals. So bust the individuals. Don’t crush investors. And finally end Too Big to Fail.” 2)”.. no one even remotely knows how these penalty-payment numbers are calculated. And the federal government’s disbursement of these funds is equally mysterious…. a lot of money has gone to states run by Democratic governors.” Why does this money go to the State and not to the victims of the crime?

The Real Retail Story: The Consumer Economy Remains At A Recessionary Level, at zerohedge.com. If production comes before consumption, there can be no such thing as a consumer economy. There is only a production economy. The ability to consume can only come from production. If consumption is at recessionary levels, than production is at recessionary levels. The Fed has destroyed the production economy by electronically printing counterfeit money and artificially keeping interest rates at zero percent.

The Media And The Mob, by Thomas Sowell, at jewishworldreview.com. Dr. Sowell weighs in on the Ferguson situation as only he can.

 

Producing Capital Goods, Requires Restricting Present Consumption

Posted August 29, 2014 by austrianaddict
Categories: Econ. 201

Tags: , , , , , , , ,

Understanding the role capital goods play in an economy is important, but understanding the process of producing capital goods is more important. Using capital goods allows individuals to become more productive over time. Capital goods are scarce, they don’t magically appear. Present consumption has to be foregone to save the resources and time needed to produce capital goods. The foundation of the advance in the worlds material standard of living is due to the capital structure that has evolved over time.  The two articles below explain Capital Theory using analogies that are simple to understand. The first by Mark Tovey is from this week, and the second is by Robert P. Murphy and is from Oct. 2008, which was in the middle of the economic crisis.

Austrian Capital Theory And The Dawn Of The Planet Of The Apes, by Mark Tovey, at mises.org. Here are a few highlights from this article.

“The adoption of ever-more roundabout and convoluted production processes is, paradoxically, the hallmark of economic development. This is not, of course, because time-consuming methods are inherently more productive. If that were the case, we could increase output by simply working more slowly!…..roundabout methods are immensely more productive than their labor-intensive counterparts, hence it is why the more complex methods have come to replace the labor-intensive ones in the developed human economies of the world.”

“In the process of economic growth, saving is crucial. No matter how ingenious the individuals comprising a society, if the means to forgo present consumption are unavailable, capital goods simply cannot be created. Crude, labor-intensive methods of production will then necessarily be employed,”

The Importance Of Capital Theory, by Robert P. Murphy, at mises.org. Here are a few highlights from this article.

“The basic Austrian story is that during the artificial boom, workers’ labor and other resources get channeled into investment projects that aren’t compatible with the overall level of real savings. Sooner or later, reality rears its ugly head, and the unsustainable projects have to be abandoned before completion. Entrepreneurs realize they were horribly mistaken during the boom, everybody feels poorer and slashes consumption, and many workers get thrown out of jobs until the production structure can be reconfigured in light of the revelation.”

“As our simple story illustrates, in modern economies workers use capital goods to augment their labor as they transform nature’s gifts into consumption goods. Because of the time structure of production, it is possible to temporarily boost everyone’s consumption (with Government or Fed stimulus), but only at the expense of maintaining the capital goods, which are thus “consumed.” At some point, engineering reality sets in, and no “stimulus” policies can prevent a sharp drop in consumption.”

Related ArticleCapital Consumption, aka, Eating Our Seed Corn, at austrianaddict.com.

Is The Economy; Growing, Shrinking, Or Exactly Where It Should Be?

Posted August 26, 2014 by austrianaddict
Categories: Econ. 201, Government and Politics

Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

Is the economy growing, or shrinking? Looking for answers to this question by listening to political rhetoric won’t help you find the answer. Politicians will always state the opposite of what their opponents assert about the economy, and will propagandize economic data in an attempt to prove these assertions. Like a pawn on a chess board, the economy will be sacrificed at the expense of winning a  political power game. Politicians preface comments about the economy by stating; “economists say” or “economists agree”, in order to prove their political position related to the economy.

ECONOMIC EXPERTS

These “economic experts”, cited by politicians, either work for the Fed, the Congressional Budget Office, the R and D parties, think tanks, or write op-eds for the NY Times. These “experts” are always talking in terms of an economy improving, growing, or healthy, on the one hand or getting worse, shrinking, or weak on the other. We should be weary about these “experts” pronouncements, because the question isn’t, is the economy growing or shrinking, the real question is, how can anyone have enough knowledge to know where the economy should be at any particular moment?

WHAT IS AN ECONOMY

The simple answer to the question, where should the economy be, is very simple: exactly where it is. To understand this we first have to know what an economy is. And economy is what results when each individual makes decisions on what to produce, consume, save, or exchange. The economy is never stationary it is constantly changing, because what each individual values related to production, consumption, saving, and exchange, is constantly changing. Economic forces are constantly in play adjusting the economy to these new changes based on what individuals value. The economy can never be measured at one particular point in time. The economic data that the experts look at is essentially an inaccurate report about what has happened in the past. This economic data is the placing of a numerical total on individual economic activity, but it says nothing about the individual activity. It’s like trying to understand a three-dimensional world by only using  length and width. How can you know what a sphere is, if the only thing you understand is a circle? Think if you had to make decisions about the D-Day invasion if all you received was information on its progress every ten hours. You would make very different decisions than if you knew in real-time what was happening. Now think if you had to make decisions about D-Day with inaccurate information that is transmitted every ten hours. Your chances of making a good decision are nearly impossible. Trying to make decisions about the economy is much more difficult because there are many more constantly changing  variables.

CENTRAL PLANNERS ARROGANCE

All these “experts”, whether they’re liberal or conservative, or whether they’re for central planning or free markets, think their particular policies can produce a growing economy. These “experts” aren’t just arrogant enough to think they know best how much the economy should be growing or contracting, they also think their policies can make it happen. They think that the decisions of hundreds of millions of people on what to produce, consume, save, and exchange, should be ignored and replaced by their decisions on what they value. Does more knowledge exist about what should be produced, consumed, saved, and exchanged in the millions of decisions made daily by millions of individuals, or does more knowledge exist in the decisions made by “experts” after they analyze false ex post facto data about these millions of decisions?

CONCLUSION

In a free market economy the economy is at any moment exactly where it should be. Whether it is growing of shrinking doesn’t matter because it reflects what millions of people value based on every decision they make. When “experts” intervene in the economy through regulations, taxes, electronically printed counterfeit money, etc, these interventions are factored into the process individuals use to decide what to produce, consume, save and exchange. Even with all of these interventions the economy is exactly where it should be at any given moment. It should be no surprise that interventionist policies, by politicians and bureaucrats, can’t produce the outcomes these planners had hoped for, they were doomed from the start. Not only because the knowledge they receive is useless, it is also late. But instead of repealing their policies, central planners try to fix the outcome brought about by their previous interventions, by proscribing new interventions. They are trying to cure the symptom instead of the problem.

The only way these interventions have a chance of working is if they were made by a totalitarian regime. But even in a totalitarian regime, individuals still have a choice on what they will produce, consume, save, and exchange. Even though the Soviet Union had all of the power to enforce its edicts, they couldn’t make central planning work. The Soviet Union’s economy, at any given time, was exactly where it should have been, even at the point when it collapsed. So don’t vote for politicians who want to steer the decisions of individuals. Allow individuals the freedom to make unhampered decisions about what they produce, consume, save, and exchange, even if you don’t like the outcome of these decisions. The result will be the optimum amount of satisfied individuals that can possibly be achieved in a world ruled by scarcity.

Related ArticleCentral Planners Don’t See The Consequences Of Their Actions. Or Do They? at austrianaddict.com.

Related  ArticleA Look Over The Horizon At What Lies Ahead If We Continue Down The Central Planning Road. at austrianaddict.com.

Related ArticleSpontaneous Order Utilizes More Knowledge Than Central Planning Could Ever Hope To Utilize, at austrianaddict.com.

Related ArticleSpontaneous Order = Free Market Economy, at austrianaddict.com.

 

 

 

 

Must Reads For The Week 8/23/14

Posted August 22, 2014 by austrianaddict
Categories: Must Reads For The Week

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
The pen is mightier than the sword...

 The pen is mightier than the sword… (Photo credit: mbshane)

WHEN MARKETS ARE ALLOWED TO WORK, CONSUMERS WIN.

Jamie King Took An Uber Car To Give Birth, Youtube Video From Late Night With Conan O’Brien. Actress Jamie King said, “I know that they say they’re three minutes away, and an ambulance, you don’t know. So I can rely on Uber. I took an Uber there.” Satisfied customers are the reason Uber will succeed.

Peer-To-Peer Lending Is Poised To Grow, by Yuliya Demyanyk, at clevelandfed.org. New technology is bringing buyers and sellers together more efficiently.

TeVido BioDevices 3D-Prints Skin And Fat Grafts For Breast Cancer Survivors, by Sara Ines Calderon, at techcrunch.com. 3-D printing using fat and skin for grafts “that stay alive and not need to be redone over time”. Truly unbelievable.

UNTIL GOVERNMENT  KNOWS WHATS BEST FOR CONSUMERS.

Salt Lake City Slaps Rideshare Drivers With $6,500 Fines, by Lee Davidson, at sltrib.com. Government regulation is the only thing that can harm Uber.

GLOBAL WARMING?

Winnipeg Still Dealing With 18 Metre Snow Pile In August, by Josh Elliott, at ctvnews.ca. Street maintenance manager Jim Berezowsky said, “… this year, he’s seeing more snow than usual. “It is significantly higher than in years past… “We didn’t receive the extreme heat that we usually do.”

Global Warming Computer Models Confounded As Antarctic Sea Ice Hits New Record High, by David Rose, at dailymail.co.uk. Since  Global Warming disciples can’t get the weather cooperate with their models, they’ll  have to use propaganda to make their global warming models fit every weather event.

US Having Coolest Summer On Record, at stevegoddard.wordpress.com. We have to start pumping more greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere in order to get temperatures back up to “normal” levels.

GOVERNMENT SURVEILLANCE

Today’s Surveillance Society Beyond Orwellian, at libertypenblog.blogspot.com. Why are individuals in Government making the internet a surveillance apparatus? Because big Government attracts and produces individuals who are “unscrupulous and uninhibited” which are both totalitarian tendencies.

California “Kill Switch” Bill Could Be Used To Disrupt Protests, by Jake LaPerruque, at cdt.org. I saw this at libertypenblog.blogspot.com. Politicians and bureaucrats don’t like an informed citizenry.

SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT FERGUSON MISSOURI

*This is starting to remind me of the Duke rape case. It fits a preconceived narrative, until the facts finally come out.

*Why did the race hustlers and the media pick this particular story. Why didn’t they pick this story, Michael Blair Shot by Police in Fort Bend County Texas (watch video). {Family calls for help after their mentally ill son locks himself in the bathroom threatening to hurt himself}

*The break down of the rule of law starts when politicians and bureaucrats ignore the law that they mandate the citizens follow.  Citizens will start to defy the law, and a gradual escalation starts on both sides. This didn’t just start last week.

*It’s hard to believe anyone in this situation is telling the truth. The truth is the foundation not just of how we interact with each other, it is the foundation of our ethics, our morals, and the rule of law. When the foundation collapses, so does the structure that is built on it.

*Politicians, bureaucrats, and journalists are trying to separate us into as many groups as possible in order to pit us against each other. This allows them to control us by controlling the narrative. We have to understand that there are two and only two groups; 1) politicians and bureaucrats who have access to the sword government power, and 2) we who are expected to obey the sword of Government power. The American Revolution was fought to give the individual sovereignty over the Government. This has been flipped upside down, and it’s time to flip it back.

 

152392 600 Ferguson Truth cartoons

More Random Thoughts By Thomas Sowell

Posted August 21, 2014 by austrianaddict
Categories: Miscellaneous

Tags: ,

Thomas Sowell

Nobody hits the nail on the head as consistently as Thomas Sowell. Here are a few examples from his recent Random Thoughts (here) column.

Too many people in Washington are full of themselves, among other things that they are full of.

“Two headlines in the August 10th New York Times speak volumes about Barack Obama. The top headline reads: “Iraq Strikes May Last Months, Obama Says.” A secondary headline reads: “No Ground Force Will Be Sent, He Repeats.” Time was when enemy spies had to risk their lives to acquire such information. Now all they have to do is read the headlines.”

“One of the big differences between Democrats and Republicans is that we at least know what the Democrats stand for, whether we agree with it or not. But, for Republicans, we have to guess”

“It is amazing how many people think they are doing blacks a favor by exempting them from standards that others are expected to meet.”

“The smug and smirking contempt of IRS Commissioner John Koskinen, when he began testifying before a Congressional committee in the IRS scandal investigation, told us all we needed to know, even if we never get the information that was supposedly “lost” when Lois Lerner’s computer supposedly crashed.”

“Despite TV pundits who say that public opinion polls show Barack Obama is in trouble, the president is not in the slightest trouble. He is doing whatever he feels like doing, regardless of the Constitution and regardless of how many people don’t like it, because he is virtually impeachment-proof. The country is in huge trouble and real danger because of his policies, but he is not.”

“It is amazing how many otherwise sane people want Israel to become the first nation in history to respond to military attacks by restricting what they do, so that it is “proportionate” to the damage inflicted by the attacks.”

“If politics were like sports, we could ask Israel to trade us Benjamin Netanyahu for Barack Obama. Of course, we would have to throw in trillions of dollars to get Israel to agree to the deal, but it would be money well spent.”

Thomas Sowell Interviewed by Brian Lamb about running for office, random thoughts columns, and writing.

 

Related ArticleRandom Thoughts by Thomas Sowell, at austrianaddict.com.

Related ArticleMore Random Thoughts by Thomas Sowell, at austrianaddict.com.

Related ArticleRandom Thoughts And Other Thought by Thomas Sowell, at austrianaddict.com.

Must Reads For The Week 8/16/14

Posted August 16, 2014 by austrianaddict
Categories: Must Reads For The Week

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , ,
The pen is mightier than the sword...

 The pen is mightier than the sword… (Photo credit: mbshane)

Institute For Justice Takes On Unconscionable ‘Forfeiture Machine,’ That Turns Cops And Prosecutors  Into Robbers, by Mark J. Perry, at aei-ideas.org. People get worn down by the States bureaucratic maze and deep pockets. People who haven’t committed a crime give up rather than continuing the fight. This is another example of the break down of the rule of law.

Support Shaneen Allen, at economicpolicyjournal.com. Shaneen Allen got a concealed carry permit in Pennsylvania because she got robbed twice last year coming home from work. After getting pulled over in New Jersey for a traffic violation, she told the officer she had a concealed carry permit and a gun, not knowing the Pennsylvania permit wasn’t recognized in New Jersey. She now faces three years in prison. The Judge, and the cop, told her telling the truth got her in trouble. The moral of the story: Don’t volunteer information to cops, it can and will be used against you.

US Postal Service: Over $47 Billion In Losses In The Past Decade And Counting, at zerohedge.com. “Neither snow not rain nor heat nor operating in the red…..” Even though the Post Office is a Government agency, it is an example of how a crony capitalist business works. It generates revenue, but not enough to cover it’s costs and therefore must be subsidized by tax payers. Where as the Post Office started as a Government agency, a crony capitalist business starts as a free market entity and lobbies government for help via subsidy and regulation.

Creating Disrespect For The Law, by Milton Friedman, at libertypenblog.blogspot.com. This short video is from Milton Friedman’s 1980 Free To Choose series on PBS. The last half of the  video about the lady starting her own mail delivery service is interesting considering the above article.

District Drops Federal Lunch Program, by Jessica Brown, at cincinnati.com. The Federal Government gets people addicted to federal money just like a drug pusher gets someone addicted to heroin. Fort Thomas Independent schools in Kentucky was able to kick the heroin addiction. The lure of federal tax dollars is too tempting for most school districts to resist.

Remember When Obama Promised He Would Not Take Vacations If Elected President, youtube video. I don’t have any problem with Presidents, congressmen, and senators taking vacations. In fact, I wish all of them would take a 365 day vacation every year. No laws would get passed which means we would not loose anymore freedom, resulting in the country functioning better. This video also shows it’s easier being a candidate for President, than actually being the President.

NYC Taxi Medallion Prices Have Flat Lined For The Last Year, ‘ The Uber Effect‘, by Mark J. Perry, at aei-ideas.org. Competition from ride sharing services, Uber and Lyft, is breaking the Taxi Cartel in NYC.

Markets In Everything: A Sharing Service Like Lyft for Moving, by Mark J. Perry, at aei-ideas.org. Buddytruk provides a moving and hauling service using the same concept that Lyft and Uber use in providing ride sharing services.

Renewable Energy Is Not Working, by Matt Ridley, at rationaloptimist.com. Renewable (green) energy, even with subsidies, is more expensive and less reliable than carbon based fuels. Government tax payer subsidies are the only thing that is keeping this uneconomical idea propped up.

The Welfare State Summarized In One Cartoon, at zerohedge.com. Will the producers be able to keep pushing more and more people uphill?

http://www.zerohedge.com/sites/default/files/images/user3303/imageroot/2014/08/20140812_welfare.jpg


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